A plant cutting is a piece of a plant that is used in horticulture for vegetative asexual propagation. A piece of the stem or root
Asexual propagation examples of cover the source plant is placed in a suitable medium such as moist soil.
If the conditions are suitable, the plant piece will begin to grow as a new plant independent of the parent, a process known as striking. A stem cutting produces new rootsand a root cutting produces new stems.
Some plants can be grown from Asexual propagation examples of cover pieces, called leaf cuttings, which produce both stems and roots.
The scions used in grafting are also called cuttings. Propagating plants from cuttings is an ancient form of cloning. If a plant has favorable traits, it can continue to pass down its advantageous genetic information to its offspring. This is especially economically advantageous Asexual propagation examples of cover it allows commercial growers to clone a certain plant to ensure consistency throughout their crops.
The poet Theodore Roethke wrote about plant cuttings and root growth behavior in his poems "Cuttings" and "Cuttings Later " found in his book The Lost Son: Cuttings are used as a method of asexual reproduction in succulent horticulture, commonly referred to as vegetative reproduction. A cutting can also be referred to as a propagule. Succulents have evolved with the ability to use adventitious root formation in reproduction to increase fitness in stressful environments.
Succulents grow in shallow soils, rocky soils, and desert soils. The detached part of the plant remains physiologically active, allowing mitotic activity and new root structures to form for and nutrient uptake. Adventitious root formation refers to roots that form from any structure of a plant that is not a root;
Asexual propagation examples of cover roots can form as part normal development or due to a stress response.
At a molecular level when a cutting is first excised at the stem there is an immediate increase in jasmonic acidknown to be necessary for adventitious root formation. The increased auxin concentration increases nitric oxide concentration which initiates root formation through a MAPK signal cascade and a cGMP-dependent pathway that that both regulate Asexual propagation examples of cover division and are both necessary for the initiation of adventitious root formation. It was known as early as that when indolylacetic acid IAAalso known as auxinis applied to the stem of root cuttings, there is an increase the average number of adventitious roots compared to cuttings that are not treated.
Researchers also applied this compound to stems without leaves that normally would not have any root formation and found that auxin induced root formation, thus
Asexual propagation examples of cover auxin is Asexual propagation examples of cover for root formation. Some plants form roots much more easily than others. Stem cuttings from woody plants are treated differently, depending on the maturity of the wood:. Most plant cuttings are stem pieces, and have no root system of their own, they are likely to die from dehydration if the proper conditions are not met.
They require a moist medium, which, however, cannot be too wet lest the cutting rot. A number of media are used in this process, including but not limited to Asexual propagation examples of cover, perlitevermiculitecoirrock woolexpanded clay pelletsand even water given the right conditions.
Most succulent cuttings can be left in open air until the cut surface dries, which may improve root formation the cutting is later planted. In temperate countriesstem cuttings may be taken of soft green or semi-ripe wood and hard wood which has specific differences in practice.
Certain conditions lead to more favorable outcomes for cuttings; timing, size, location on the
Asexual propagation examples of cover, and amount of foliage are all important. Stem cuttings of young wood should be taken in spring from the upper branches, while cuttings of hardened wood should be taken in winter from the lower branches. Common bounds on Asexual propagation examples of cover length of stem cuttings are between 5—15 centimetres 2.
Soft wood cuttings do best when about two thirds of the foliage removed,  while hard wood stem cuttings need complete foliage removal. The environment for cuttings is generally kept humid —often attained by placing the cuttings under a plastic sheet or in another confined space where the air can be kept moist—and partial shade to Asexual propagation examples of cover the cutting from drying out.
Cuttings in the medium are typically watered with a fine mist to avoid disturbing plants. Following the initial watering, the
Asexual propagation examples of cover to Asexual propagation examples of cover the soil moist but not wet and waterlogged; the medium is allowed to almost dry out before misting again.
A rooting hormone may be administered to "encourage" growth and can increase the success rate of plant growth.
Among the commonly used chemicals is indolebutyric acid IBA used as a powder, liquid solution or gel. This compound is applied either to the cut tip of the cutting or as a foliar spray. Rooting hormone can be manufactured naturally, such as soaking the yellow-tipped shoots Asexual propagation examples of cover a weeping willow tree in water or to preparing a tea from the bark of a willow tree.
Shoots or bark Asexual propagation examples of cover better when soaked for 24 hours prior to using. Although some species, such as willowblackberry and pelargoniums can be grown simply by placing cutting into moist ground, the majority of species require more attention. Most species require humid, warm, partially shaded conditions to strike, thus requiring the approach above to be followed.
Particularly difficult species may need cool air above and warm soil. In addition, with many more difficult cuttings, one should use the type of cutting that has the most chance of success with that particular plant species.
There are ways of improving the growth of stem cutting propagations. Intensifying light allows cuttings to root and sprout faster, though the Asexual propagation examples of cover thus generated could cause the propagation material distress. Depending on the type of soil being used, several additives may need adding to create good soil for cuttings.
These additions may include:. For example, with plain potting soil, a third of the container should be filled with sand, to make suitable soil for cuttings. Although several options can be used here, usually semi-white plastic is used to cover the cuttings. The soil below and from the cuttings themselves is kept moist, and should be aerated once in a while to prevent formation of molds.
A plastic bottle can be used as a small greenhouse to provide the right humidity level. To note, plants listed above may require water for them to root, before they can be transplanted to soil.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For cuttings used in viticulture, see Propagation of grapevines. Intersections between stress recovery, RNA turnover, and epigenetics". Journal of Experimental Botany.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cuttings. Wikiversity has learning resources about Plant propagation.
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