Asexuality is the lack of sexual attraction to others, or Icdra a sexual orientation
Icdra a sexual orientation absent interest in or desire for sexual activity. Asexuality is distinct from abstention Icdra a sexual orientation sexual activity and from celibacy  which are behavioral and generally motivated by factors as an individual's personal or religious beliefs. Acceptance of asexuality as a sexual orientation and field of scientific research is still relatively new,    as a growing body of research from both sociological and psychological perspectives has begun to develop.
Various asexual communities have to form since the advent of the World Wide Web and social media. The most prolific and well-known of these communities is the Asexual Visibility and Education Network, which was founded in by David Jay. Asexuality is sometimes called acewhile the community is sometimes called the ace communityby researchers or
Icdra a sexual orientation. The Asexual Visibility Icdra a sexual orientation Education Network defines an asexual as "someone
Icdra a sexual orientation does not experience sexual attraction" and stated, "[a]nother small minority will think of themselves as asexual for a brief period of time while exploring and questioning their own sexuality" and that "[t]here is no litmus test to determine if someone is asexual.
If at any point someone finds the word asexual useful to describe themselves, we encourage them to use it for as long as it makes sense to do so. Asexual people, though lacking sexual attraction to any gender, might engage in purely romantic relationships, while others might not.
With regard to sexual activity in particular, the need or desire for masturbation is commonly referred to as Icdra a sexual orientation drive by asexuals and they disassociate it from sexual attraction and being sexual; asexuals who generally consider it to be a normal product of the human body and not a sign of latent sexuality, and may not even find it pleasurable.
Many people who identify as asexual also identify with other labels. These other identities include how they define their gender and their romantic orientation. Regarding romantic or emotional aspects of sexual orientation or sexual identityfor example, asexuals may identify as heterosexuallesbiangaybisexualqueer  or by the following terms to indicate that they associate with the romantic, rather than sexual, aspects of sexual orientation: People may also identify as a gray-A such Icdra a sexual orientation a gray-romantic, demiromantic, demisexual or semisexual because they feel that they are between being aromantic and non-aromantic, or between asexuality and sexual attraction.
While the term gray-A may cover anyone who occasionally feels romantic or sexual attraction, demisexuals or semisexuals experience sexual attraction only as a secondary component, feeling sexual attraction once a reasonably stable or large emotional connection has been created. Other unique words Icdra a sexual orientation phrases used in the asexual community to elaborate identities and relationships also exist.
One term coined by individuals in the asexual community is friend-focusedwhich refers to highly valued, non-romantic relationships. Other terms include squishes and zucchiniswhich are non-romantic crushes and queer-platonic relationships, respectively. Terms such as non-asexual and allosexual are used to refer to individuals on the opposite side of the sexuality spectrum.
Asexuality is not a new aspect of human sexuality, but it is relatively new to public discourse. Smith of The Guardian is not sure asexuality has actually increased, rather leaning towards the belief that it is simply more visible. He also included Icdra a sexual orientation category he called "X" for individuals with "no socio-sexual contacts or reactions. Lehmiller stated, "the Kinsey X classification emphasized a lack of sexual behavior, whereas the modern definition of asexuality emphasizes a lack of sexual attraction.
As such, the Kinsey Scale may not be sufficient for accurate classification of asexuality. Further empirical
Icdra a sexual orientation about an asexual demographic appeared inwhen a research team in the United Kingdom carried out a comprehensive survey of 18, British residents, spurred by the need for sexual information in the wake of the AIDS pandemic.
The survey included a question on sexual attraction, to which 1.
Since less sexually experienced people are more likely to refuse to participate in studies about sexuality, and asexuals tend to be less sexually experienced than sexuals, it is likely that asexuals were under-represented in the responding participants. The same study found the number of homosexuals and bisexuals combined to be about 1.
There is significant
Icdra a sexual orientation over whether or not asexuality is a sexual orientation. The first study that gave empirical data about asexuals was published in by Paula Nurius, concerning the relationship between sexual orientation mental health.
Results showed that asexuals were more likely to have low self-esteem and more likely to be depressed than members of other sexual orientations; A similar trend existed for Icdra a sexual orientation. Nurius did not believe that firm conclusions can be drawn from this for a variety of reasons.
In a study, Yule et al. The results of male and female participants were included in the findings. The Icdra a sexual orientation was found for female asexual participants their heterosexual counterparts; however, non-asexual, non-heterosexual females had the highest rates. Asexual participants of both sexes were more likely to have anxiety disorders than heterosexual and non-heterosexual participants, as were they more likely than heterosexual participants to report having had recent suicidal feelings.
With regard to sexual orientation categories, asexuality may be argued as not being a meaningful category to add to the continuum, and instead argued as the lack of a sexual orientation or sexuality. The suggestion that asexuality is a sexual dysfunction is
Icdra a sexual orientation among the asexual community.
Those who identify as asexual usually prefer it to be recognized as a sexual orientation.
Because of these facts coming to light, it is reasoned that Icdra a sexual orientation is more than a behavioral choice and is not something that can be cured like a disorder. Research on the etiology of sexual orientation when applied to asexuality has the definitional problem of sexual orientation not consistently being defined by researchers as including asexuality.
While some asexuals masturbate as a solitary form of Icdra a sexual orientation a sexual orientation or have sex for the benefit of a romantic partner, others do not see above. The Kinsey Institute sponsored another small survey on the topic inwhich found that self-identified asexuals "reported significantly less desire for sex with a partner, lower sexual arousability, and lower
Icdra a sexual orientation excitation but did not differ consistently from non-asexuals in their sexual inhibition scores or their desire masturbate".
A paper titled Asexual and Autoerotic Women: Two Invisible Groupsby Icdra a sexual orientation T. Johnson, is explicitly devoted to asexuality in humans. She portrays them as invisible, "oppressed by a consensus that they are nonexistent," and left behind by both the sexual revolution and the feminist movement. Johnson argued that society either ignores or denies their existence or insists they must be ascetic for religious reasons, neurotic, or asexual for political reasons.
In a study published in in volume five of Advances in the Study of AffectIcdra a sexual orientation well as in another article using the same data and published in in the Journal of Personality and Social PsychologyMichael D. Storms of the University of Kansas outlined his own reimagining of
Icdra a sexual orientation Kinsey scale.
Whereas Kinsey measured sexual orientation based on a combination of actual sexual behavior and fantasizing and eroticism, Storms used only fantasizing and eroticism. Storms, however, placed hetero-eroticism and homo-eroticism on separate axes rather than at two ends of a single scale; this allows for a distinction Icdra a sexual orientation bisexuality exhibiting both hetero- and homo-eroticism in degrees comparable to hetero- or homosexuals, respectively and asexuality exhibiting a level of homo-eroticism comparable to a heterosexual and a
Icdra a sexual orientation of hetero-eroticism comparable to a homosexual, namely, little to none.
This type of scale accounted for asexuality for the first time. In a study by Paula Nurius, which included subjects most of whom were students at various universities in the United States taking psychology or sociology classesthe two-dimensional fantasizing and eroticism scale was used to measure sexual orientation. Based on the results, respondents were given a score ranging from 0 to for hetero-eroticism and from 0 to for Icdra a sexual orientation. Respondents who scored lower than 10 on both were labeled "asexual".
Results showed that asexuals reported much lower frequency and desired frequency of a variety of sexual activities including having multiple partners, anal sexual activities, having sexual encounters in a variety of locations, and autoerotic activities. Asexuality and Its Implications for Theory and Practicesuggests that asexuality
Icdra a sexual orientation be somewhat of a question in itself for the studies of gender and sexuality. The asexual movement challenges that assumption by challenging many of the basic tenets of pro-sex feminism [in which it is] already defined as repressive or anti-sex sexualities.
This formula, if dissected scientifically and proven, would support researcher Simon LeVay 's blind study of the hypothalamus in gay men, women, and straight men, which indicates Icdra a sexual orientation there Icdra a sexual orientation a biological difference between straight men and gay men. InCerankowski and Milks edited and published Asexualities: Feminist and Queer Perspectivesa collection of essays intended to explore the politics of asexuality from a feminist and queer perspective.
Icdra a sexual orientation part contains two to three papers on a given aspect of research. One such paper is written by Ela Przybylo, another name that is becoming common in asexual scholarly literature. Her article, with regard to the Cerankowski and Milks anthology, focuses on accounts by self-identified male asexuals, with a particular focus on the pressures men experience towards having sex in dominant Western discourse and media.
Three men living in Southern Ontario, Canada, were interviewed inand Przybylo admits that the small sample-size means that her findings cannot be generalized to a greater population in terms of representation, and that they are "exploratory and provisional", especially in a field that is still in theorizations. Another of Przybylo's works, Asexuality and the Feminist Politics of "Not Doing It"published intakes a feminist lens to scientific writings on asexuality.
Pryzyblo argues that asexuality is made possible only through the Western context of "sexual, coital, and heterosexual imperatives". Empirical and the Scientific Study Icdra a sexual orientation Sex", Przybylo distinguishes between two different stages of asexual Icdra a sexual orientation - that of the late s to the early s, which often included a very limited understanding of asexuality, and the more recent revisiting of the subject which she says began Icdra a sexual orientation Bogaert's study see above and has popularized the subject and made it more "culturally visible".
In this article, Przybylo once again asserts the understanding of asexuality as a cultural Icdra a sexual orientation, and continues to be critical of its scientific study. CJ DeLuzio Chasin states in Reconsidering Asexuality and Its Radical Potential that academic research on asexuality "has positioned asexuality in line with essentialist discourses of sexual orientation" which is troublesome as it creates a binary between asexuals and persons who have been subjected to psychiatric intervention for disorders such as Hypoactive Sexual Icdra a sexual orientation Disorder.
Chasin states that asexuality has the power to challenge commonplace discourse of Icdra a sexual orientation naturalness Icdra a sexual orientation sexuality, but that the unquestioned acceptance of its current definition does not allow for this.
Chasin also argues there and elsewhere in Making Sense in and of the Asexual Community: Navigating Relationships and Identities in a Context Icdra a sexual orientation Resistance that is important to interrogate why someone might be distressed about low sexual desire.
Chasin further argues that clinicians have an ethical obligation to avoid treating low sexual desire per se as pathological, and to discuss asexuality as viable possibility where relevant with clients presenting clinically with low sexual desire. Bogaert argues that understanding asexuality is of key importance to understanding sexuality in general.
Icdra a sexual orientation definition of asexuality also makes clear this distinction between behavior
Icdra a sexual orientation desire, for both asexuality and celibacy, although Bogaert also notes that there is some evidence of reduced activity for those who fit this definition.
He further distinguishes Icdra a sexual orientation desire for others and desire for sexual stimulation, the latter of which is not always absent for those who identify as asexual, although he acknowledges that other theorists define asexuality differently and that further research needs to be done on the "complex relationship between attraction desire". In an earlier article, Bogaert acknowledges that a distinction between behavior and attraction has been accepted into recent conceptualizations of sexual orientation, which aids in positioning asexuality as such.
First, he suggests that there could be an issue with self-reporting i. An academic
Icdra a Icdra a sexual orientation orientation dealing with the history of the asexual community is presently lacking.
For some, being a part of a community is an important resource because they often report having felt ostracized.
Some question the concept of online community, while others depend on the online asexual community heavily for support. Elizabeth Abbott posits that there has always been an asexual element in the population, but that asexual people kept a low profile.
While the failure to consummate marriage was seen as an insult to the sacrament of marriage in medieval Europe, and has sometimes been used as grounds for divorce or to rule a marriage void, asexuality, unlike homosexuality, has never been illegal, and it has usually gone unnoticed.
However, in the 21st century, the anonymity of online communication and general popularity of social networking online has facilitated the formation of a community built around a common asexual identity.
Communities such as AVEN can be beneficial to those in search of Icdra a sexual orientation to solve a crisis of identity with regard to their possible asexuality. Individuals go through a series
Icdra a sexual orientation emotional processes that end with their identifying with the asexual community.
They first Icdra a sexual orientation that their sexual Icdra a sexual orientation differ from those of most of society. This difference leads to questioning whether the way they feel is acceptable, and possible reasons for why they feel this way. Pathological beliefs tend to follow, in which, in some cases, they may seek medical help because they feel they have a disease.
Self-understanding is usually reached when they find a definition that matches their feelings. Asexuality communities provide support and information that allows newly identified asexuals to move from self-clarification to identifying on a communal level, which can be empowering, because
Icdra a sexual orientation now have something to associate which gives normality to this overall socially-isolating situation.
Asexual organizations and other Internet resources play a key role in informing people about asexuality. The lack of research Icdra a sexual orientation it difficult for doctors to understand the causation. Like with any sexual orientation, most people who are asexual are self-identified.
This can be a problem when asexuality is mistaken for an intimacy or relationship problem or for other symptoms that do not define asexuality. There is also a significant population that either does not understand or does not believe in asexuality, which adds to the importance of these organizations to inform the general population; however, due to the lack Icdra a sexual orientation scientific fact on the subject, what these groups promote as information Icdra a sexual orientation often questioned.
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