This study investigates the relationship between religious influence and sexual expression in older Americans, with specific attention to gender. Using the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a nationally-representative survey of older adults, we create a composite measure of religious influence on sexual expression using Latent Class Analysis. We find more variability within denominations than between in terms of membership in the high-influence class; this indicates that religious influence on sexual expression is diverse within faiths.
We show that religious influence is associated with higher self-reported satisfaction with frequency of sex, as well as higher physical and emotional satisfaction with sex, but only for men. Men are also significantly more likely than women to report that they would only How do religious ideologies influence sexuality sex with a person they love. These results persisted in the presence of controls for demographic characteristics, religious affiliation, church attendance, intrinsic religiosity, political ideology, and functional health.
We explore this topic using a nationally-representative sample of older adults aged 57 and older. We focus on older adults for several reasons. In addition, the relationship between religion and sexuality in longer-term relationships among older adults is not well-understood. In order to situate our inquiry in exiting scholarship we begin by reviewing literature on the impact of religiosity on sexual expression, with a focus on older couples and variation by gender.
Individuals may have attitudes or practices that accord with the normative teachings of religion - for instance, encountered through his or her upbringing or contacts - without necessarily being religious themselves. Within sociology this kind of religious influence was first described by Max Weber, who identified the persistent influence of a Protestant ethic on the economy of an apparently Europe Weber, : This foundational perspective has been used in more modern studies, to document the impact of religious influence on morality Joas,and delinquent behavior Regnerus, Following this conceptualization, we now outline religious influence on sexuality, before discussing sexuality in older adulthood.
However, religious normative codes also may be pro-sex, but dedicated to organizing sexual expression in normatively-appropriate ways. Early sexual debut, for instance, may not be problematic when accompanied by marriage because it demonstrates that the individual has accepted certain moral guidelines and religiously-prescribed How do religious ideologies influence sexuality of sexual expression i.
Qualitative research on religion and marital sex provides insight in how such social might unfold. Gardner, in a study of abstinence campaigns, shows how How do religious ideologies influence sexuality rhetoric of religious leaders includes a promise that chastity will actually mean improved sexual satisfaction, as How do religious ideologies influence sexuality divine reward for according with religious codes of conduct Garnder, In another recent book, Sex in CrisisDagmar Herzog analyzes hundreds of Christian sex guides for long-term couples in order to describe a transformation in American religious discourses on sex, similar to what Gardner describes Herzog argues that highly-religious Americans are encouraged to organize their pleasure in religious ways without reducing their sexual quality of life Herzog,Ch.
While the media that Herzog and Gardner review are largely
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality by Protestants, other also imbue sexual activity with religious significance.
For instance, one might expect that highly-religious Catholics would be more likely to be more sexually unsatisfied because Catholic dogma seemingly prohibits sex for reasons besides procreation.
In an important work of Catholic apologetics, however, G. And, Jennifer Hirsch, in an interview study of Mexican Catholics, found that many of her subjects understood sexual activity with their partners as commensurate with the Catholic principle that husbands and wives should be sexually How do religious ideologies influence sexuality to one another Hirsch, Therefore, older adults may appropriate different elements of religious teachings, to use them in a
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality which does not necessarily reflect the expectations of religious leaders Gardner, Additionally, religious influence may be more important for differences in behavior than religious affiliation in terms of the effect on sexual belief or practice Regnerus, In
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality, there is ample reason to believe that older adults How do religious ideologies influence sexuality appropriate religious norms in a manner that improves sexual expression.
In the next section, we review research on sexual expression in older adulthood to examine how religious influence may be particularly consequential for this group. Several previous studies have shown that sexual activity continues into older ages Corona et al.
Even in the presence of health problems, older adults may change their sexual behaviors to downplay intercourse in sexual expression so they can still engage in reciprocal and pleasurable activity Corona et al. Such activity at older ages tends to be in the context of long-term relationships Laumann How do religious ideologies influence sexuality al. For instance, research suggests that sexual ideation and desire seems to decline with age J. While both men and women experience such a decline on average, the rate over time may differ by gender with men typically experiencing higher sexual desire than women at older ages Herbenick et al.
This may lead to asymmetries between men and women in terms of how satisfied they are with the frequency of sex in their lives.
Older adulthood also creates new contexts for sexual satisfaction. However, there is
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality considerable variability in satisfaction at older ages J. For instance, health problems may lower sexual desire Palacios-Cena et al. A good-quality sex life at older ages will therefore often mean maintaining a level of coital frequency acceptable to two people in a long-term relationship, appropriate to their levels sexual desire, where both partners feel that they are happy, physically and emotionally, with their sexual experiences.
However, religious norms may prescribe different codes of conduct depending on gender, and men and women may not benefit equally from the influence of religious norms. Based on this perspective, we would expect that men would benefit more than women because they are normatively permitted to set the frequency of sexual activity per their prerogative as head of household.
However, the competing hypothesis, that women would
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality more from religious norms, also is plausible.
While highly-religious How do religious ideologies influence sexuality may be instructed by church leaders to submit to their husbands, women may reinterpret these instructions in an empowering manner Denton, ; Pevey et al.
Furthermore, religious leaders sometimes encourage women to be more sexually expressive, as a way to prevent their husbands from being tempted to seek sexual satisfaction outside of the marriage Bartkowski, In sum, previous research suggests two contradictory expectations about what we might find in our analyses of How do religious ideologies influence sexuality and its influence sexual expression.
This work will arbitrate between these perspectives with a focus on gendered associations between religious influence and normative orientations toward sexuality. The data come from the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project NSHAPa nationally-representative survey of older adults, comprising men and women over the age of 57, with data collected in — 1.
It How do religious ideologies influence sexuality asks numerous questions about sexual attitudes, religious attitudes and religious participation How do religious ideologies influence sexuality et
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality. Ten percent of the
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality is non-Hispanic black, and seven percent Hispanic.
We make of Latent Class Analysis LCA to describe religious influence on sexual expression, following our conceptualization of religious influence as configurations of behavior and attitudes that reflect the normative teachings of a religion.
It also includes numerous measures of model fit for establishing the number of latent categories that best fit the data. We selected six variables for inclusion in the LCA, five dichotomous and one ordinal. These variables stem from the following questions: While many religions also forbid the
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality of prostitutes, the LCA does not include this variable since the number of women who have ever paid for in the sample is very small compared to How do religious ideologies influence sexuality Male We also do not include any variable on the use
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality prophylactics, since most of the respondents are in a long-term relationship Unless a respondent is missing information on all six variables, the LCA will attempt to classify him or her using whatever information is available.
In simulations FIML also has proven to be a more consistent estimator of model parameters than listwise deletion or pairwise deletion, recommending it for How do religious ideologies influence sexuality use here Enders, After identifying the
How do religious ideologies influence sexuality LCA model, and assigning respondents to classes, we then proceed through two stages.
First, we predict membership in the latent classes in order to examine whether religious factors predict membership in high-influence classes. We control for self-reported conservative political orientation, age, gender, race, education, and marital status, since these may confound the relationship between other religious factors and class membership. We also include a control for functional health since one of our variables, never masturbating, could also be the result of deficits in health.
The variable is a count of the number of difficulties with any of the following: Following this exercise, we use class membership to predict a number of outcomes related to sexual well-being.
These outcomes include whether the respondent finds his or her current relationship How do religious ideologies influence sexuality pleasurable, and whether he or she finds the relationship emotionally satisfying. We also examine whether the respondent has sex with his or her partner at least once a week coital frequencywhether the respondent is having sex How do religious ideologies influence sexuality often as he or she would like, and if the respondent thinks about sex every day or more.
We also include an influence-gender interaction term. Our key independent variable will be latent class membership. As its name suggests, the clarify package is meant to render the effect sizes in models more intelligible, by turning odds ratios into changes in the predicted probability of some outcome. Table 1 shows descriptive statistics for the variables used in this analysis. We can see that responses are clustered near the high end of the scale.
respondents either agree or strongly agree with the statement, and less than thirty percent disagree.
This is consistent with other work Smith, Of those who were asked whether they refused sex for religious reasons, only The proportions for the other variables in the LCA are much higher, with ninety-six percent of the sample reporting How do religious ideologies influence sexuality having a same sex partner.
The number of people who never masturbate in the sample is also quite high - over sixty percent Prior research indicates that, in general, women do not masturbate as often as men at any age Laumann et al. Turning to predictors and controls, we see that the proportions are what we might expect for this age range. The mean age is 68, and about one third of the sample is politically conservative. The religiosity variables provide some insight into the lives of adults at older ages.
A little than half of these adults attend church at least once a week. Almost eighty percent of the respondents agree with the statement that they carry their religious beliefs into other areas of their lives.
Furthermore, regarding denomination, the modal denomination is Catholic Regarding the outcomes of interest in this analysis, we see that, like other age groups in the United States, the sample appears to be happy with their relationships Laumann et al. About seventy percent each How do religious ideologies influence sexuality that their current relationship is very or extremely physically pleasurable, and almost exactly the same number say that they find their relationships emotionally satisfying the correlation between these two variables is 0.
Finally, note that about three-quarters of these respondents say they would not have sex unless they were in love. In selecting the correct number of latent classes we relied on the Bayesian Information Criterion BICwhich is considered the most reliable test of model fit Nylund et al.
We settled on two classes, which we present in Table Two. Note that the significance stars associated with the odds ratios in this table were determined by t-test for the dichotomous items, but a chi-squared test for the ordinal item.
The most striking finding in this component of the analysis is that the attitudinal and behavioral variables move together, and that there is no class which is typified by religious attitudes without religious behavior. Almost two-thirds of the first class strongly agrees with the statement that his or her religion affects sexual behavior, and all of the other variables in the LCA suggest that this influence of religion on sexual expression extends to both attitudes behavior.
The odds of refusing sex for religious reasons are 77 times greater in the first class compared to the second.
The odds of never masturbating are ten times greater, and twenty-six times greater for saying that infidelity is always wrong. Three quarters of the first class have never been divorced note that individuals who were never married would have had their values set to missing, and so were excluded from How do religious ideologies influence sexuality risk pool.
Overall it appears that the U. We can break down membership in the high influence class according to denomination in order to see whether any denomination has an exclusive or overwhelming claim on class membership. In Figure 1 denominations are arrayed from left to right in terms of the proportion within each denomination that was placed in the high influence class.
Some of this is a matter of small sample size - there are only fifty Mormons in the sample. However for others with larger proportions of the sample, such as Lutherans, there is some reason to suspect that they really are no different from Methodists, Catholics, Congregationalists or Presbyterians.
In Table 3 we predict membership in the high influence class in three models. The first model includes demographic variables, political identification, and functional health problems.
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How Religion Might Influence Rape Culture
That study investigates the relationship between religious influence and sexual expression in older Americans, with specific notice to gender. Using the National Social Life, Stamina and Aging Project, a nationally-representative survey of older adults, we create a composite measure of holy influence on sexual appearance using Latent Class Inquiry. We find more variability within denominations than separating in terms of membership in the high-influence class; this indicates that undeviating influence on sexual appearance is diverse within faiths.
We show that rigorous influence is associated with higher self-reported satisfaction with frequency of sex, as well as higher medical man and emotional satisfaction with sex, but only through despite men. Men are besides significantly more likely than women to report that they would only maintain sex with a life they love. These results persisted in the wraith of controls for demographic characteristics, religious affiliation, church attendance, intrinsic religiosity, factious ideology, and functional state.
We explore this area of study using a nationally-representative representative of older adults elderly 57 and older.
We focus on older adults for several reasons.
Gender and religion
Adultery as a crime or even as a ground for divorce has long been repealed in the countries that exported this law to Africa. We must reject the use of African soil as a dumping ground for all sorts of evil by our neo-imperialists. It's about all the women who have been victim to sexual violence and assault.
In mainstream Christian tradition, the relationship between a husband and wife is believed to mirror the relationship between Christ and the Church. The Rhetoric of Evangelical Abstinence Campaigns. In such cultures, women are married as soon as they are able to procreate, they have little or no access to formal education, and they are allowed little self-determination.
Was he scared to lose me?While religion in the past has taught us how to live ethical lives and be and ideologies (i.e. value systems) privilege one gender or sex (or. Sex differences in religion can be classified as either "internal" or "external". Internal religious . The second creation story of Adam and Eve became influential in regards to how women were viewed in Victorian society by means of the..
ANOTHER IS A PRECISE APPORTION COUCH IN THE SURROUNDINGS AS MICROGAMING...
- KEYWORDS: SEXUALITY, RELIGION, OLDER ADULTHOOD, LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS NOTE THAT BEING INFLUENCED BY A RELIGION DOES NOT REQUIRE...
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- could lead to a secularization of beliefs about premarital sex. This content tants help sustain conservative religious ideologies, despite secularizing trends in. Gender, sexuality and religion: Gender matters to our understanding of power relations) that influence such identities, and the way they are practised? and very often in ways that are clearly (or not so clearly) ideological.
- Gender and religion - Wikipedia
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- Secular Ideologies and Sex Education: A Response to Professors Cahn and Purple, Professors Cahn and Carbone focus on religion's influence on public. While religion in the past has taught us how to live ethical lives and be and ideologies (i.e. value systems) privilege one gender or sex (or.
- It's time to examine how Christian perceptions of sex influence us. . The more deeply entrenched your Christian sex ideologies are, the more repressed you. Sex differences in religion can be classified as either "internal" or "external". Internal religious . The second creation story of Adam and Eve became influential in regards to how women were viewed in Victorian society by means of the.
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