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Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban

opinion

The purpose of this communication is to study violence against women in public spaces. Indeed, although we usually put the Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban emphasis on violence perpetrated in the private home, the fact remains that violence in the streets is as important and serious, in that it constitutes an obstacle to Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban mobility of Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban. Thus, the question of insecurity experienced by women in and outside of urban security in general is the real question.

Our study is based on the results of fieldwork carried out among women in Rabat Morocco. We will treat the different forms of violence against women in public spaces physical, sexual, psychological ; its perception by women, the consequences on their physical and mental health and on their family and social life.

The analysis will include their responses to such violence, such as strategies of Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban and resignation due to the internalization of gender norms, for fear of reprisals, the judgements of others, etc.

These changes also lead to rapid changes in social relations, in particular those between men and women. Indeed, the education, Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban feminine wage-earner, the changes in the traditional family structure, the modernizer role of States, etc. The traditional sexual division knows a new dynamic and the exclusion of women is more and more denounced.

Massively, women have reached the public sphere, traditionally a male space, and they have appropriated it. They influence this space and modify the practices and the behaviour there. Needs, schedules, the ways to occupy space, leisure activities, sociability in the neighbourhood, work, etc.

The city offers itself unequally to men and to women, and each Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban according to the norms and values that the city requires. Indeed, if we mostly emphasize the violence committed in private domestic space, the fact remains that the violence undergone in the street is also important and serious, and it is a real brake to the mobility of women.

It was conducted from a socio-anthropological perspective and from qualitative, analytical semi-structured interview and direct observation on the ground Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban. Our sample consists of 40 women we had conversations with 53 women in the city of Rabat.

The sampling of women was carried out according to their age, social background or origin rural or urbanby occupation, educational level, depending on their marital status, area of residence and type of habitat Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban based on seniority of residence in the city. In fact, we tried to interview women of different ages 19 to 70 yearseducated and employed, housewives, whether from rural areas or not, and thus vary as much as possible the profiles in order to make comparisons and identify similarities and differences between them to have a broad view on the issue 1.

We tried to diversify the profiles by questioning women belonging to various social-economic circles, of varied age, in the home and salaried, veiled and non-veiled, etc. The analysis will also concern their reactions to this Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban, such as the strategies of acceptance and resignation because of the interiorization of the gendered norms, through fear of reprisals, of the judgements of others, etc.

Indeed, women constantly have to deal with remarks and improper conduct, Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban constitute a violation of their sexual, physical and moral Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban. Most women interviewed agree that they face barriers in access to the outside. They face constraints that hinder their mobility and all confirmed that they had been victims of harassment or sexual assault, in various public spaces streets, public transportation, or workplace.

They are constantly confronted with small incidents and there Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban no one single perpetrator, there are dozens of men who use insulting words, who look in a disagreeable way, whistle, etc.

We must therefore distinguish between serious sexual attacks and the sexual harassment established by a multitude of small attacks, which make the lives of women sometimes unbearable. Women may feel insecure in public space when they are alone, they complain of being unable to Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban quietly on the street without being bothered, even if some women admit to being sensitive to the image that we send back to them, because they feel also valued and attractive through this behaviour in the form of remarks or comments on their beauty.

It is a kind of symbolic sexual assault, encouraged by the anonymity of public space. Men in general even if the group of men is not homogeneous have sexualized their behaviour, they behave in public as if they had all the rights and treat the women outside as public property. The female body is seen only in its physical aspect, as a potential sexual object and the syndrome of appropriation, one of the most significant of the spirit of harem, does not help either 4.

Offensive expressions are a good example, as the names of animals are used: Women undergo hurtful insults and derogatory comments about their bodies, their clothing, which is not inconsequential in their own image of the body and misfortune to those who are dressed in a way considered extravagant. The garment is of use to these men as a measure of the morality of the girl.

A depreciation, a sterilization in its representation of themselves and their body are developed in the woman. Attitudes such as disgust, deletion, or even depersonalization may occur in girls and also women.

Do we not often hear young girls say: It is a violation of their private space, mentally and physically in order to make them understand that they are not in their correct place.

It is also a way for men to prove Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban their virility and dominance over women and space; because the fact of destabilizing and of weakening a woman means dominating her.

Apart from insults, which are the most frequent violence in public space, women also complain of being followed in their movements, which is a major obstacle to their mobility. In fact, undergoing an unwanted presence is no longer welcome by the women; it causes a huge psychological pressure in them.

Women complain of exhibitionists and they suffer sexual touching rubbing in the bus The fear of women is of hitting, or attacks with knives carried during robberies, or sexual assault… Women also face institutional barriers identity checks by police, harassment for behaviour The public space creates some tension and feelings of insecurity and, as J.

Coutras said, possible insecurity is a part of the definition of the space for the women 7. All this hinders women in their relationship to public space and is causes discomfort in the street. This is one of the reasons that lead women to avoid going out alone because they feel vulnerable. Moreover, aggression in the public space affects even women who are with men.

The fear of Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban is to have remarks or be harassed while accompanied by their father or their husband, given the consequences it can have fights that can end badly. The city is thus Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban experienced positively by women, it is even seen as an area of obscenity and deviance, a space of anxiety and insecurity which participates in the marginalization of women and in their exclusion from public place.

It engendered acts of physical and symbolic violence against Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban and prevents them from freely reaching the public place, from being what they want in the city and, in the end, from expanding their relation to the city. Can we speak then, in these conditions, of the Right to the City for women, when we know that they are subject to daily violence of different natures? Women denounce the machismo and sexism that they face, and demand more equality and respect from men, who do not yet see them as full citizens in the city.

Among the most important is the use of the outside. Indeed, for Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban majority of the questioned women, the public place limits itself above all to well-frequented places and to the places where they have to go for a particular need.

The youngest seem to have internalized this standard — their need to justify, every time, their access to the public place proves it visiting a friend to consult schoolbooks, going shopping —, even if the reason is quite different.

The idea of going out without a reason is not well regarded. The public place answers an essentially useful purpose. All women prefer to be out accompanied by their husbands, their mother, their girlfriend or their children, Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban if there is no specific reason for going out.

They like to have company to feel good in the public space, and also for security reasons, as these examples show:. They have internalized the feeling of being minor and lower Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban the men, especially in the public place, which they have internalized as being a male space where they have their place only within the limits granted by society. Some women internalized this violence as being an inherent part of the public place. Other women choose to react differently, by mobilization and struggle for recognition of their rights to occupy the public sphere where they are marginalized.

Nowadays, however, it seems that a new Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban, with new media, has helped Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban to light issues as sensitive and taboo as harassment, and helped to overcome fears and blocks that are all beyond state control.

It also shows how women make use of new technologies to serve a cause, a way for them to circumvent the standards, for lack of access to traditional and official means of expression. Indeed, the Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban of platforms and blogs that support the needs of varied expressions of women, especially through the choice of anonymity the nickname for more freedom of speechthe distribution of video testimonies, the appeal to Facebook and to all other forms of social media has had a big impact in social mobilizations in general and feminine in particular; they modify the practices because they bring together Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban from different backgrounds who did not know each other before, and Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban make the fight and claims of women visible and stronger.

They are spaces of freedom of expression and contesting, alternative spaces for lack of access to the public Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban to make their voice heard by power, which had so far judged these questions as without interest and towards whom it showed its indifference.

Scoffed in their physical and moral integrity, these women claim the right to live in the city and to circulate in its streets normally, without any obstacle to their freedom, as Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban by several testimonies of women surveyed.

The development of the Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban information technologies and communication has contributed to the creation of a public place on the scale of the planet, allowing women to express themselves.

The current feminine reality is not any more approving of the exclusion of women. Women have become unavoidably needed for the economic and social development of the country. They participate henceforth in public life. Nevertheless, even if women have had massive access to public places, there are some limits to their presence, which is codified, and they face obstacles and undergo constraints that hinder their mobility.

The city is not completely open to women, as some places are banned; it offers multiple territories such as Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban for males and females, authorized and unauthorized areas.

Breaking the Silence on Sexual...

Men continue to structure their Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban in sexual differentiation, hence their reluctance to broaden the ownership of public spaces by women and where from also this stereotypical separation of the sexes, which shows the weight on them of the standards, the traditional values and the patriarchal mentality, fruit of a long process of family socialization. The street therefore appears as a male territory, if women venture there it is at their risk and danger.

This has Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban a standard which the women themselves have internalized, as evidenced by the advice and prescriptions given by mothers to their daughters about the use of Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban space such as: The harassment in the street is thus part of socialization of girls, because we teach them very early to face it and to manage it. Their education gives them the basics of using the city and the bases for managing the relationship between individuals within it, because they learn early on to cope, to manage and to develop defence strategies for example, to prick a man who approaches too closely with a pin, as was demonstrated by one of our interlocutors.

Some develop strategies including modest clothes, as is the case the veil, that besides its various functions, allows them to circulate freely because they are in Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban with their traditional role It gives them some value, a respectable image.

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It is a kind of passport, legitimizing their presence in this space; a kind of shield, of symbolic barrier against male attacks, because it is a religiously strong symbol which imposes respect. The veil means that the woman is present in the world of men, but that she is invisible, a chosen strategic invisibility which allows her a big appropriation of the city.

This idea is also shared by women who see public space as male space, as shown by the analysis on the ground, they define and delimit their own place in this space and the space of their freedom. The public space or getting out is for them, in the words of P. Bourdieu, a movement that leads to men, and also to the dangers and hardships that it is important to confront. The public space Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban a territorial male area and the female presence Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban is only half-recognized.

It is for women a space of temporary passage and not an area where Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban presence is legitimate.

If women have occupied physical public space, they have not actually occupied it in a psychological and symbolic way, despite the will of young people to escape from the yoke of traditions. Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban Journal of Feminist Cultural Studies.

We have ensured that our choice, despite its limited staff, is significant, since the women interviewed represent a wide variety of situations. American law recognized it as an offense in and, at the beginning of s, French feminists adopt it definitively. This notion qualifies the behavior of men who Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban their power Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban the professional sphere to obtain sexual favors.

The Anglo-Saxons speak about sexual harassment or about sexual terrorism to indicate sexual harassment in the public sphere in a general way. See also Lieber M. Safaa Monqid is a Sociologist and Arabist; she is research associate at the Cedej.

In this paper, I will...

Plan Violence and street assaults as a constraint to access to Sexual harassment in public spaces and urban space. Consequences of harassment in the street on the access by women to public places.

Bibliographie Abu Lughod L. Revue de sciences sociales traitant du monde arabe et musulman contemporain Editeur:

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