Somatic maturation and body composition in female healthy adolescents with or without adjustment for body fat. To evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality adolescents with or without excessive body fat.
The adolescents were divided in two groups: Group 1 G1eutrophic with adequate body fat percentage, and Group 2 G2eutrophic with high body fat percentage. There was an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Length, BMI and fat percentage were different among the somatic maturation stages. It is relevant to evaluate the somatic maturation and the changes occurring in the body composition during adolescence in order to better Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality and manage the nutritional status and the body fat excess.
According to the World Health Organization 1adolescence is defined as the period of life ranging from ten to 19 years, being phase of transition from childhood to adulthood. Puberty comprises the physical and biological changes; however, adolescence encompasses puberty and psychosocial transitions 1. Puberty starts 1 year earlier in girls, but their peak height velocity PHV occurs two years earlier, compared to boys 1.
The girls begin the growth spurt at 9.
The changes in body composition include changes in the relative proportions of water, lean mass, fat mass and skeletal, as well as characteristics of pubertal maturation, resulting in phenotypic differences between the sexes 4. The relative amount of fat in females gradually increases during adolescence 5.
Growth is rapid in early childhood and pre-adolescence, increasing sharply during the adolescence growth spurt, reducing and, eventually ending, as adult dimensions Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality achieved 6. growth is particularly sensitive to environmental conditions, among which stand out: Somatic maturation is used to evaluate the biological using, for this, the analysis of PHV in height 8 Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality, 9which can be obtained by the formula of Mirwald et al 10which has anthropometric measures of height, height, and cephalic length.
All changes in body composition that occur Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality adolescence are associated with the biological maturation state 9. Changes in the nutritional status of adolescents may vary between individuals, according to genetic, hormonal, and environmental processes 1 In the study by Pinto et al 12 ,the prevalences
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality overweight and abdominal obesity showed an increase in the final stages of sexual maturation for both sexes, when indicators of body mass index BMI and waist circumference were
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality. Girls with early sexual maturation had a higher prevalence of overweight and abdominal obesity than adolescents in which the sexual maturation was delayed Given the above, the aim of this study was
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality evaluate the relationship between the stages of somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic adolescent females or without excess body fat.
The adolescent were grouped into: To calculate the sample size, we used the software Epi-Info 6. For the sample selection, we chose randomly four public schools by convenience, located in the urban area of the municipality. Of these, all students who met the inclusion criteria participated in the random selection draw. The selected adolescents from both groups underwent anthropometric and body assessments.
According to the techniques proposed by Jellife 18weight was measured using an electronic digital scale with a maximum capacity of kg and g sensitivity, and height was measured with a portable stadiometer with 2. We classified the nutritional status by BMI and height by age and sex, as proposed by the World Health For the location of the peripheral and central body fat, we used the sum of the biceps and triceps skinfolds and the subscapular and suprailiac skinfolds.
The fat-free mass in kilograms FFM kg was obtained subtracting the Fat kg from the total weight. The waist circumference WC and hip circumference HC were measured with a flexible and inelastic tape measure, with extension of 2m, divided into centimeters and subdivided into millimeters, care being taken not Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality compress the soft parts.
The measure f the WC was obtained at the midpoint between the last rib and the iliac crest, and the HC as the largest circumference of the hip-buttocks region. The 90th percentile is the cutoff used for the studied population We calculated the somatic maturation with the formula to estimate the PHV for adolescents, developed by Mirwald et al The formula of somatic maturation for girls, according to Mirwald et al 10is: From the resulting value, adolescents Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality classified into three For data analysis we used the software Epi-Info 6.
We performed the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to verify the normality of data. Pearson's chi-square test for linear association was used to verify the relationship between somatic maturation and nutritional status of adolescents.
We also used the multiple correspondence analysis, as a method of multivariate exploratory analysis, to observe the association between groups of adolescents regarding body fat, stages of somatic maturation, and the classification of WC, WHR and the WHtR.
Participants older than 18 or parents signed the informed consent Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality. The study included adolescents with a mean age of Regarding the classification of somatic maturation, 10 8.
PHV in height had higher scores in adolescents from G1 in comparison to G2 0. There was a greater proportion of G1 adolescents By analyzing the somatic maturation separately in each group, Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality difference was found between the PHV stage and anthropometric measures in G1.
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality the other hand, adolescents from G2 who were in the period of spurt and post-spurt presented higher values of height and fat-free mass Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality 2.
The first dimension presented Cronbach's alpha equal to 0. This dimension is characterized by the extremes - adolescents in the pre-spurt stage, with excess body fat G2 and with inadequate values of WC, WHR, and WtHR were correspondent. The results showed an association between somatic maturation and body composition in eutrophic female adolescents. Similarly, studies showed that the stages of sexual maturation influence the anthropometric and body composition parameters, allowing the systematic construction and use of references considering pubertal development 420 Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality, According to Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality et al 11during puberty, there are changes in lean body mass and in body fat distribution, with Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality growth rate growth spurt and the fusion of the bone epiphysis until adult height is achieved.
Physiologically, this finding can be explained, as a certain amount of body fat is necessary for the growth spurt in both sexes, and in females body fat is accumulated especially in the central region The results of this study showed that variables such as height, BMI of fat, and percentage of central fat varied in different classification stages of somatic maturation. As observed, the rates Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality height were higher in stages during and after PHV.
According to Barbosa et al 21the increase in body mass observed in females coincides with increases in fat accumulation and the period of greatest increase in height.
On the other hand, the participants of G2, with excess fat, varied among the three groups of somatic maturation regarding height and fat-free mass in the stages during and post-PHV. This result is consistent with the maturation process, since height and
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality mass are directly proportional to the PHV also in females 6 To Duarte 20the weight tends to increase after menarche, due to the overall growth and development of the body and especially the increase in fat deposits, due to the greater role of
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality and progesterone.
According to the Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality, the accumulation of fat in the central region in girls who have not reached the PHV is necessary to provide the physiological changes that occur during puberty 4 The adolescents who were in the PHV stage and in the post-PHV stage had correspondence with
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality adequate values of these variables.
These results show that the WHR, the WHtR, and the WC were related to the stages of somatic maturation, and it is important to emphasize that these variables are good indicators of metabolic syndrome and of the occurrence of cardiovascular disease in adolescence 22 This
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality cannot be made in this study, as 8.
Barbosa Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality al 21 also found that the assessment of nutritional status, and the Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality and body composition changes during adolescence are strongly related to the growth spurt.
Siervogel et al Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality and the World Health Organization 25 highlight the importance of considering biological markers for the beginning and the end of the pubertal growth spurt. Corroborating the cited researches, the present study showed that, in addition to biological markers, anthropometric body composition variables, especially those related to body fat, have varied in the pre-PHV stage.
The increase in body fat observed in virtually all countries of the world in recent decades, makes the use of anthropometric measures in population surveys to define reference values even more critical According to Gomes et al 26it is essential to include information on sexual maturation to assess the
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality status of adolescents This, in turn, is marked by the human biological variability, which originates from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors that occur during the growth spurt.
Changes in body composition of adolescents are markers of metabolic changes that occur during pubertal development 21 Metabolic changes, in turn, predict the risk of occurrence in adult life, of non-communicable chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and obesity 6727 Thus, we emphasize that the knowledge of the association between Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality development and body composition enables the planning and practice of intervention measures to prevent this outcome Several factors may influence the development of obesity in adolescence, namely, inadequate dietary intake, physical inactivity, sexual maturity, socioeconomic status and parental influence According to Duarte 20the interrelationships between physical development, and maturation are still poorly known in Brazilian children and adolescents.
Given the above, it is considered that the pubertal stage determines striking changes in anthropometric and body composition parameters in adolescents. There are numerous intrinsic and environmental factors that may the onset of puberty, with no optimal hormonal marker 21 The main methodological implications related to studies of pubertal development include determining the initiation and progression, and form of assessment; this also applies the process of somatic maturation.
Regarding limitations of this study, we may consider the fact that teenagers aged from 10 years were Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality selected, which probably increased the number of girls in the group classified as pre-PHV. Another limitation is related to the use of a cross-sectional design, which does not allow the assessment of Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality and effect.
Even so, there was a relationship between somatic maturation and body composition variables in adolescents. We may conclude that there is variation of anthropometric and body composition values among the three stages of PHV of somatic maturation, especially those related to body fat.
The study indicates the importance of following these anthropometric Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality body composition variables from the beginning of pubertal growth spurt in females, in Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality to control the accumulation of adipose tissue, as well its future consequences on the health of adolescents.
Therefore, we realize the importance of working with somatic maturation in assessing body composition of adolescents. It is noteworthy that, during puberty, not only chronological age, sex, and stage of sexual maturation should be considered in the assessment of nutritional status, but also the adolescent's stage of somatic maturation, i. Future studies with adolescents in the initial period of adolescence 10 to 14 years may show the relationship between body composition, and stages of somatic and sexual maturation in both sexes.
Therefore, health professionals
Maturation definition statistics of sexual immorality use somatic maturation as an additional tool to evaluate a healthier body development of adolescents. Nutrition in adolescence - issues and challenges for the health sector: J Adolesc Health ; Rev Paul Pediatr ; Mild stunting is associated with higher body fat: J Pediatr Rio J ; Factors associated with adiposity in normal weight female adolescents with adequate and high percent body fat: Arch Latinoam Nutr ; Longitudinal studies on somatic growth and motor performance: Rev Bras Cineantropom Desempenho Hum ; Comparison of the biochemical, anthropometric and body composition variables between adolescents from 10 to 13 years old and their parents.
Controlling for maturation in Pediatric exercise science. An assessment of maturity from anthropometric measurements. Med Sci Sports Exerc ;